EXTRACT FROM THE CONSTITUTION OF GEORGIA

EXTRACT FROM THE CONSTITUTION OF GEORGIA

CHAPTER FIVE

Judicial Authority

Article 82

  1. Judicial authority shall be exercised through constitutional control, justice, and other forms determined by law.
  2. Judicial acts shall be binding upon all state bodies and persons throughout the territory of the country.
  3. Judicial authority shall be independent and be exercised exclusively by the courts.
  4. A court shall award a judgement on behalf of Georgia.
  5. Cases in the courts of general jurisdiction shall be heard by juries in the cases and as provided for by law.

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 3272 of 6 February 2004 – LHG I, No 2, 7.2.2004, Art. 5

 

Article 83

  1. The Constitutional Court of Georgia shall be a judicial body of constitutional control. Its powers, the procedure forits creation and activity shall be laid down in the Constitution and organic law.
  2. Justice shall be administered by the courts of general jurisdiction. Their system shall be determined in organic law.
  3. Military courts may be established under martial law and exclusively within the courts of general jurisdiction.
  4. Establishment of either extraordinary or special courts shall be inadmissible.

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 4133 of 27 December 2006 – LHG I, No 3, 11.1.2007, Art. 44

  1. Only a court may quash, change, or suspend a court decision as determined by law.

 

Article 85

  1. A court shall consider a case at a nopen hearing.Consideration of cases at a closed hearing shall be permitted only in the cases provided for by law. A court decision shall be published.
  2. Legal proceedings shall be conducted in the official language.Anindividual not having a command of the official language shall be provided with an interpreter service. Teaching of the official language and solution of the issues related to legal proceedings shall be guaranteed in the regions where the population does not have a command of the official language.
  3. Legal proceedings shall be conducted on the basis of equality and competition of parties.

 

Article 86

  1. A judge shall be a citizen of Georgia who is thirty years old and over, and who has relevant higher legal education with at least a five-year experience in the practice of law.
  2. Judges shall be appointed for life unless they reach the age determined by law. Before the lifetime appointment of a judge, the appointment of a judge for a definite period but not more than three years may be envisaged by law. The selection, appointment, or dismissal procedure for judges shall be laid down in the Constitution and organic law.
  3. The position of a judge shall be incompatible with any other occupation and remunerative activity, except for pedagogical and scientific activities. A judge may not be a member of a political party or participate in a political activity.

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 2496 of 27 December 2005 – LHG I, No 1, 4.1.2006, Art. 2

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 3710 of 15 October 2010 – LHG I, No 62, 5.11.2010, Art. 379

 

Article 861

  1. The High Council of Justice of Georgiashall be established in order to appoint and dismiss judges to/from office and to perform other tasks.
  2. More than half of the High Council of Justice of Georgia shall be composed of the members elected by a self-government body of judges of the courts of Georgiaof general jurisdiction. Chairperson of the Supreme Court of Georgia shall chair the High Council of Justice of Georgia.
  3. The powers and the procedures for establishment of the High Council of Justice of Georgia shall be defined by organic law.

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 4133 of 27 December 2006 – LHG I, No 3, 11.1.2007, Art. 44

 

Article 87

  1. A judge shall enjoy personal immunity. No one has the right to arrest, detain, or bring criminal proceedings against a judge, search his/her apartment, car, workplace, or conduct a personal search without the consent of the Chairperson of the Supreme Court of Georgia, except when he/she is caught at the scene of crime, in which case the Chairperson of the Supreme Court of Georgia shall immediately be notified. Unless the Chairperson of the Supreme Court of Georgia gives his/her consent, the arrested or detained judge shall immediately be released.
  2. The State shall ensure the security of any judge and their family.

 

Article 84

  1. A judge shall be independent in his/her activity and shall comply with the Constitution and law only. Any pressure upon a judge or any interference in his/her activity in order to influence his/her decision making shall be prohibited and punishable by law.
  2. A judge may be removed from consideration of a case or dismissed from office early or moved to another position only in the cases defined by law.
  3. No one shall have the right to claim a report of any particular case from a judge.
  4. All acts restricting the independence of any judge shall be null and void.

 

Article 88

  1. The Constitutional Court of Georgiashall exercise judicial power by virtue of constitutional litigation.
  2. The Constitutional Court of Georgia consists of 9 judges who are members of the Constitutional Court. Three members of the Court shall be appointed by the President of Georgia, three members shall be elected by more than half of the fulllist of MPs, and three members shall be appointed by the Supreme Court. Members of the Constitutional Court shall be appointed for10 years. The Constitutional Court shall elect its chair person among its composition for a period of five years.
  3. No person shall be a member of the Constitutional Courtif they have held this office before.
  4. Any citizen of Georgia having a higher legal education who is thirty years old may be a member of the Constitutional Court. The recruitment, appointment, and election procedure, and the issue of termination of office for members of the Constitutional Court, as well as other issues of the constitutional litigation and activity of the Constitutional Courtshall be laid down in law.
  5. A member of the Constitutional Court shall enjoy personal immunity. No one has the right to arrest, detain, or bring criminal proceeding against a member of the Constitutional Court, search his/her apartment, car, workplace, or conduct a personal search without the consent of the Constitutional Court, except when he/she is caught at the scene of crime, in which case the Constitutional Court of Georgia shall immediately be notified. Unless the Constitutional Courtgives its consent, the arrested or detained member of the Constitutional Courtshall immediately be released.

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 2496 of 27 December 2005 – LHG I, No 1, 4.1.2006, Art. 2

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 3710 of 15 October 2010 – LHG I, No 62, 5.11.2010, Art. 379

 

Article 89

  1. Based on an action brought or a nomination made by the President of Georgia, the Government of Georgia, not less than one fifth of MPs, the court, supreme representative bodies of the Autonomous Republics of Abkhazia and Ajara, self-government representative bodies – Sakrebulos, the High Council of Justice, the Public Defender or a citizen, under the procedure determined by an organic law, the Constitutional Court of Georgia shall:
  2. a) adjudicate the constitutionality of a Constitutional Agreement, law, normative acts of the President and the Government, normative acts of supreme state bodies of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and the Autonomous Republic of Ajara;
  3. b) consider disputes on competence between the state bodies;
  4. c) consider the constitutionality of formation and activity of political unions of citizens;
  5. d) consider disputes on the constitutionality of regulations governing referenda and elections, as well as disputes on the constitutionality of elections (referenda) held or to be held on the basis of the regulations;
  6. e) consider the constitutionality of treaties and international agreements;
  7. f) consider the constitutionality of normative acts in terms of fundamental human rights and freedoms enshrined in Chapter Two of the Constitution on the basis of an individual’s lawsuit; f1) consider disputes on violations of the Constitutional Law of Georgia on the Status of the Autonomous Republic of Ajara;

f2) consider disputes on the constitutionality of normative acts in terms of the provisions defined by ChapterSeven¹oftheConstitutionon the basis of a lawsuit brought by a self-government representative body – Sakrebulo;

f3) consider the compatibility of normative acts with Articles 82, 84, 86, 86¹, 87 and 90 of the Constitution based on the submission by the High Council of Justice;

  1. g) exercise other powers defined by the Constitution and organic law of Georgia.
  2. A judgement of the Constitutional Court shall be final. A normative act or part of it recognised as unconstitutional shall cease to have legal effect as soon as the respective judgement of the Constitutional Courtis published.

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 260 of 20 April 2000 – LHG I, No 15, 25.4.2000, Art. 36

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 826 of 30 March 2001 – LHG I, No 9, 10.4.2001, Art. 33

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 1689 of 10 October 2002 – LHG I, No 28, 28.10.2002, Art. 128

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 3272 of 6 February 2004 – LHG I, No 2, 7.2.2004, Art. 5

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 306 of 1 July 2004 – LHG I, No 16, 4.7.2004, Art. 54

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 2496 of 27 December 2005 – LHG I, No 1, 4.1.2006, Art. 2

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 3710 of 15 October 2010 – LHG I, No 62, 5.11.2010, Art. 379

 

Article 90

  1. The Court of Cassation shall be the Supreme Court of Georgia.
  2. The chairperson and judges of the Supreme Court of Georgia shall be elected for a period of not less than1 0years by Parliament, by a majority of the full list of MPs, on the recommendation of the President of Georgia.
  3. The powers, structure, rules of operation and procedure for early termination of the office of the Supreme Court judges shall be defined by organic law.
  4. The chairperson and members of the Supreme Court of Georgia shall enjoy personal immunity. No one has the right to arrest, detain, or bring criminal proceeding against the chairperson and members of the Supreme Court, search his/her apartment, car, workplace, or conduct a personal search without the consent of Parliament, except when he/she is caught at the scene of crime, in which case the Parliament of Georgia shall immediately be notified. Unless the Parliament of Georgia gives its consent, the arrested or detained person shall immediately be released.

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 2496 of 27 December 2005 – LHG I, No 1, 4.1.2006, Art. 2

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 3710 of 15 October 2010 – LHG I, No 62, 5.11.2010, Art. 379

 

Article 91. (Deleted)

Constitutional Law of Georgia No 3272 of 6 February 2004 – LHG I, No 2, 7.2.2004, Art. 5